# JTS Frequently Asked Questions

Last Update: September 18, 2008- General
- Design and Structure
- How can I use JTS algorithms with a different geometry model?
- Why does JTS allow geometries to be constructed with invalid topology?
- What is the difference between a Point and a Coordinate?
- Does JTS support 3D operations?
- What coordinate system and/or units does JTS use?
- Geometry Predicates
- How are spatial predicates computed?
- Why does relate(POINT(20 20), POINT(20 30), "FF0FFF0F2") = true?
- Why is the result of a predicate different in JTS than in another software application/library?
- Robustness and Precision
- Why is a TopologyException thrown?
- Why does the coordinate given in a TopologyException not appear in the input data?
- What is a "robustness failure"?
- What is a "topology collapse"?
- What is the PrecisionModel for?
- Why does JTS not enforce the specified PrecisionModel when creating new geometry?
- Why do the overlay operations not obey the axioms of set theory?
- Why is the result of
`intersects`

inconsistent with the result of`intersection`

? - How can I prevent TopologyExceptions or incorrect results in overlay operations?
- Algorithms
- Are there any references which describe the algorithms used in JTS?
- Is there a skeletonization algorithm which works with JTS?
- How can JTS split a polygon with a linestring?
- Geodetic Operations
- Does JTS support computation on the geodetic ellipsoid?
- Can JTS be used to compute a geographically accurate range circle?
- Geometry Cleaning and Conflation

## A. General

### 1. What Java versions does JTS work with?

JTS is developed using Java 1.4.2. It should work with all newer versions. With a small amount of work the library can be made to work with almost all previous Java versions as well.## B. Design and Structure

### 1. How can I use JTS algorithms with a different geometry model?

The solution to this is to use Facade objects which wrap the non-JTS geometry model classes. In order to avoid having to create and copy large numbers of Coordinate objects, JTS provides the CoordinateSequence interface. A CoordinateSequence-based adapter can be written for whatever structure the foreign model uses to represent sequences of points. JTS Geometry objects will still need to be created to represent the structure of the geometries containing the points, but these are relatively lightweight in comparison.### 2. Why does JTS allow geometries to be constructed with invalid topology?

JTS intentionally allows topologically invalid geometries to be constructed for the following reasons:- It allows a wider set of geometry to be read, stored and written from external data sources
- It allows geometries to be constructed and then validated
- It avoids the costly overhead of validating topology every time a geometry is constructed

### 3. What is the difference between a Point and a Coordinate?

A Coordinate is a relatively simple class which represents a location on the Cartesian plane (optionally with an associated height value). Coordinates are usually treated as mutable objects, in order to simplify certain algorithms.A Point is a subclass of Geometry that also represents a location on the Cartesian plane. It is a "heavy-weight" object (which for instance may contain an envelope) which support all methods that apply to Geometrys.

### 4. Does JTS support 3D operations?

JTS does not provide support for true 3D Geometry and operations. However, JTS does allow Coordinates to carry an elevation or Z value. This does not provide true 3D support, but does allow "2.5D" uses which are required in some geospatial applications.### 5. What coordinate system and/or units does JTS use?

JTS uses the implicit coordinate system of the input data. The only assumption it makes is that the coordinate system is infinite, planar and Euclidean (i.e. rectilinear and obeying the standard Euclidean distance metric). In the same way JTS does not specify any particular units for coordinates and geometries. Instead, the units are implicitly defined by the input data provided. This implies that in most cases input geometries to operations should be defined with the same coordinate system.## C. Geometry Predicates

### 1. How are spatial predicates computed?

The two input geometries are decomposed into labelled topology graphs (GeometryGraphs). The labels are on the nodes and edges of the graphs. They contain full information about the topology of the node/edge in the points/lines/polygons of the original geometry. The labelled topology graphs are merged. This includes merging the labels wherever there is common nodes or edges. For each geometry at each node, the label information is propagated to all edges incident on that node. The resulting relationship (Intersection Matrix, or IM) is determined by the merged label information at the nodes of the merged graph. The labelling of each node and its incident edges is inspected, and the topological relationship information it contributes is added to the overall IM. At the end of this process the IM has been completely determined.### 2. Why does relate(POINT(20 20), POINT(20 30), "FF0FFF0F2") = true?

According to the SFS 1.1, section 2.1.3:*The boundary of a Point is the empty set*

Since points do not have boundaries, all the intersection matrix entries relating to the geometry boundaries are "F".

In some situations it is desirable to use a different definition for determining whether geometry endpoints are on their boundary. To support this, JTS provides the ability to specify a custom BoundaryNodeRule to the RelateOp class.

### 3. Why is the result of a predicate different in JTS than in another software application/library?

This is usually due to the fact that JTS predicates are computed exactly, using the full precision of the double-precision coordinates. Other geometry engines sometimes compute in lower precision, or round input coordinates, or use a tolerance when determining whether two lines intersect or cross.As a specific example, in the following case:

A: POLYGON ((1368.62186660165 17722.3281808793, -1653 9287.5,
4038.14058906538 8613.02390521266, 1368.62186660165 17722.3281808793))

B: POLYGON ((-5846 9287.5, 7453 8380, 9082 16600, -6326.5 18842,
-5846 9287.5))

JTS reports

`A.overlaps(B) = true`

, whereas another
application reports false. The Overlaps
result is correct - the bottom right point in the triangle B lies outside
the quadrilateral A. This is demonstrated by intersecting the bottom edge
of A LINESTRING (-5846 9287.5, 7453 8380)

with B. The value of the intersection is a line segment:

LINESTRING (4038.140589065375 8613.02390521266, 4038.14058906538
8613.02390521266)

which shows that B crosses the boundary of A, and thus overlaps A.

## D. Robustness & Precision

### 1. Why is a TopologyException thrown?

TopologyExceptions are thrown when JTS encounters an inconsistency in the internal topology structures it creates to compute certain spatial operations (in particular,**spatial predicates**and

**overlay operations**). These inconsistencies can happen for two reasons:

**Invalid input geometry**. If input geometry is invalid according to the JTS (and OGC SFS) model, the results of operations is undefined, and may produce exceptions. Geometry validity can be checked by using the isValid() method.**Robustness failure**due to floating-point roundoff errors. Floating-point errors can cause incorrect results to be computed for internal operations (such as computing point-line orientation, computing the intersection of two line segments, or computing the noded arrangement of a set of line segments).

In some rare cases, it is not possible to recognize an inconsistent topological situation. In these cases, no exception will be thrown, but the returned geometry will not correctly reflect the true result of the operation. JTS contains special checks to detect and prevent this from occurring for the overwhelming majority of inputs, however.

Unfortunately there is no guaranteed way of avoiding TopologyExceptions. However, a heuristic which often helps is to ensure that input geometry coordinates do not carry excessive precision. Instead of providing coordinates with a full 16 digits of precision (which usually far exceeds the actual accuracy of the input data), try reducing precision to a few decimal places. Of course, correct geometry topology must still be maintained. (This is primarily an issue for polygons, and can be tricky to do in some pathological cases). JTS provides the SimpleGeometryPrecisionReducer class to do a simple reduction in coordinate precision, although this class is not guaranteed to maintain correct geometry topology.

### 2. Why does the coordinate given in a TopologyException not appear in
the input data?

In order to reduce robustness problems during overlay operations, JTS/GEOS
sometimes transforms geometry into a different coordinate system. The
coordinates in a TopologyException
message are presented in the working coordinate system, rather than the
input coordinate system. This may not match the input data. ### 3. What is a "robustness failure"?

A**robustness failure**is a situation in which a JTS operation on valid inputs either fails to complete (by throwing an exception) or produces an incorrect answer. This situation is usually caused by the unavoidable internal finite-precision arithmetic causing round-off error, which in turn causes invalid geometric topology to be created at some point during the evaluation of the algorithm.

The operations which are notably susceptible to robustness errors are the overlay operations (intersection, union, difference and symDifference). The input geometries which are most likely to trigger this behavior are ones which contain a lot of precision (e.g. 14-16 significant digits of precision), and/or ones which contain line segments which are nearly, but not exactly, coincident.

### 4. What is a "topology collapse"?

A**topology collapse**is a situation in which the finite-precision numerical representation used in JTS (Java's IEEE-754 double-precision floating point) is unable to accurately represent a particular geometric configuration exactly. This causes vertices to be slightly shifted from their mathematically exact position. In certain geometric configurations, this can result in the computed geometry being topologically invalid.

Typically this occurs in situations where polygon vertices are very close to other line segments. If the vertex is shifted slightly it may cross the line segment, resulting in a ring which self-intersects.

### 5. What is the PrecisionModel for?

The PrecisionModel specifies the precision of the coordinates used to define geometries. Note that JTS expects that coordinates are supplied already rounded to the desired precision model; it does not perform this automatically during geometry creation.For some operations the Precision Model also specifies the precision in which computation is performed, and in which computed results are constructed. However, this is not uniform across all operations. For instance, the the overlay and buffer operations

**do**obey the precision model, but the spatial predicates do not.

### 6. Why does JTS not enforce the specified PrecisionModel when creating new geometry?

The PrecisionModel specified in a GeometryFactory is not applied to the coordinates supplied when creating geomtries with the factory. This is because:- Changing the precision of coordinates is in general a non-trivial operation, since it can cause topology collapse (see D4.
- Changing coordinate values adds significant overhead,
since
`CoordinateSequence`

s may not be mutable, and thus would require a full copy being made - Commonly the input is already precise, and thus changing precision is not required

### 7. Why do the overlay operations not obey the axioms of set theory?

This is sometimes posed as:"Why is the

`intersection`

of two geometries not contained in either
of the originals?" or: "Why does the

`union`

of two geometries not contain either of
the originals?" or: "Why does

`A union (B difference A) != A `

?"
The axioms of geometric set theory apply in a theoretical world in which all arithmetic is carried out exactly with infite precision real numbers. In this world operations such as union and intersection are exact, which in turn means that they are commutative and associative. This allows equations such as

`A union (B difference A) = A `

to hold. JTS only approximates this ideal by simulating it using finite-precision floating point arithmetic. JTS uses double-precision floating point numbers to represent the coordinates of geometries (specifically, IEEE-754 double-precision floating point, which provides 56 bits of precision). This provides the illusion of computing using real numbers - but it's only an illusion. The finite representation of real numbers forces rounding to take place during arithmetic computation. This means that operations are not commutative or associative. This in turn has the effect that geometric axioms are not maintained. (For the same reason, as is well known and documented, finite-precision floating-point computation does not fully obey the axioms of arithmetic.)

Furthermore, JTS contains code which adjusts input geometries in small ways in order to try and prevent robustness errors from occuring. These minor perturbations may also result in computed results which do not necessarily obey the set theory axioms.

However, a major JTS design goal is that the output of geometric operations is "close" to the theoretically correct result (using some small epsilon of tolerance and a suitable geometric distance metric.) This is the best that can be achieved under the finite-precision paradigm. This goal is generally met by the JTS algorithms. Moreover, the precision of JTS geometric operations is almost always much greater than the inherent accuracy of the input data.

### 8. Why is the result of `intersects`

inconsistent with the result of `intersection`

?

The inconsistent case is:
A = LINESTRING(0.0 0.0, -10.0 1.2246467991473533E-15) B = LINESTRING(-9.999143275740073 -0.13089595571333978, -10.0 1.0535676356486768E-13)This case produces the following inconsistent results:

A.intersects(B) = false A.intersection(B) = POINT (-10 0.0000000000000012)This is a specific case of D7 above. It is interesting because it shows how simple geometric cases can reveal the limitations of finite-precision binary floating-point arithmetic. It also highlights the impact of design choices made in JTS. Specifically, JTS computes spatial predicates (including

`intersects`

) using high-precision arithemtic.
This determines the exact spatial relationship of the input geometries.
In contrast, the overlay operations (including `intersection`

) use standard double-precision arithmetic
to compute intersection points, and the computed point is necessarily represented
in double-precision.
This has the effect that there are cases where the results of spatial predicates is not be consistent
with the result of overlay operations.
### 9. How can I prevent TopologyExceptions or incorrect results in overlay operations?

TopologyExceptions and incorrect results encountered during overlay computations are symptoms of robustness issues. Robustness issues are caused by the limitations of using finite-precision numerics in geometric algorithms.Currently the surest way to prevent robustness issues is to limit the numerical precision of the input geometries to something less than the available 16 digits. To be safe, the precision of the input geometry coordinates should be no more than 14 decimal digits (and possibly as few as 10 or 12). This is still plenty of precision to represent the accuracy of real-world data.

Reducing the precision of the input data means that result vertices will not perfectly match the input ones. Thus this technique is particularly useful in situations where it is not necessary to perfectly preserve vertex-to-vertex faithfulness to the source geometry. Example use cases are:

- the result is only used to obtain derived quantities such as area or length
- the result is only used for visualization purposes
- the result vertices do not need to fully match the input

Coordinate precision can be controlled in several ways:

- the best way is to ensure that the original source of the input geometries provides only as much precision as is really required. If this is not possible to enforce, then it will be necessary to reduce the precision of the geometries once they are created.
- the SimpleGeometryPrecisionReducer class can be used to reduce the precision of geometry coordinates. Note that this class operates in a point-wise fashion, and thus in some situations may not maintain correct polygonal topology. If this is an issue, see the following item.
- the GeometryPrecisionReducer reduces geometry coordinate precision, and attempts to detect and correct invalid polygonal topology resulting from precision reduction.

## E. Algorithms

### 1. Are there any references which describe the algorithms used in JTS?

Many of the details of JTS algorithms (particularly in the areas of performance and robustness) are unique to JTS. However, the general design of the algorithms for computing spatial predicates and spatial overlay follow a generally accepted strategy for computing with 2-dimensional planar linear topological structures. Some papers which present similar approaches are:- E. Chan, J. Ng.
**A General and Efficient Implementation of Geometric Operators and Predicates**;*Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Advances in Spatial Databases, 1997.* - Schutte, Klamer.
**An edge-labeling approach to concave polygon clipping**;*submitted to ACM Transactions on Graphics, 1995.* - M. V. Leonov and A. G. Nikitin.
**An Efficient Algorithm for a Closed Set of Boolean Operations on Polygonal Regions in the Plane (draft English translation).***A. P. Ershov Institute of Informatics Systems, Preprint 46, 1997.* - Vatti, B.R.
**A Generic Solution to Polygon Clipping**;*Communications of the ACM, 35(7), July 1992, pp.56-63.*

### 2. Is there a skeletonization algorithm which works with JTS?

Yes. See the Refractions Research Skeletonizer### 3. How can JTS split a polygon with a linestring?

Currently JTS does not contain a**Split Polygon By Line**operation. Thus the only way to do this is to construct a "splitting" polygon which contains the linestring and surrounds one side of the target polygon without touching it. Then the overlay operations

`intersection`

and `difference`

can be used to extract the two sides of the target polygon.
Constructing the splitting polygon is obviously easier when the linestring is a straight line;
and simplest if it is horizontal or vertical.
## F. Geodetic Operations

### 1. Does JTS support computation on the geodetic ellipsoid?

No. JTS currently assumes that geometries are defined in a Cartesian, planar, 2-dimensional space. Thus it cannot be used to compute accurate metrics, predicates or constructions on the geodetic ellipsoid which is usually used to model the surface of the Earth.It is hoped to provide geodetic operations in a future version.

### 2. Can JTS be used to compute a geographically accurate range circle?

A geographically accurate range circle is a shape on the ellipsoid modelling the surface of the Earth which represents all points which are a given distance from a fixed point on the ellipsoid. This is a more complicated shape than either a circle or even an ellipsoid. In general JTS cannot compute this shape, since JTS assumes a Cartesian coordinate system (i.e. a two-dimensional plane extending infinitely in all directions). This is obviously not a good approximation to the surface of the ellipsoid, except over very small distances. Computing a true range circle requires complex spherical mathematics as well as a richer coordinate system model. This is outside the current scope of JTS.## G. Geometry Cleaning and Conflation

### 1. How can I correct the topology of a Polygon that JTS is reporting as invalid?

- Compute polygon.buffer(0). The buffer operation is fairly insensitive to topological invalidity, and the act of computing the buffer can often resolve minor issues such as self-intersecting rings. However, in some situations the computed result may not be what is desired.
- If holes are overlapping the shell or other holes, create individual polygons from the shell and all the holes, and then subtract the holes from the shell.